${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Neutral substitutions occur at a faster rate in exons than in noncoding DNA in primate genomes Wed 18 Mar 2020 09:11:23 AEST ]]> The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus Wed 18 Mar 2020 09:08:23 AEST ]]> Reproducible combinatorial regulatory networks elucidate novel oncogenic microRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer Wed 18 Mar 2020 08:57:54 AEST ]]> Quantitative real-time PCR assay for the rapid identification of the multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Wed 18 Mar 2020 08:30:45 AEST ]]> Tracing the environmental footprint of the Burkholderia pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide genotypes in the tropical “Top End” of the Northern Territory, Australia Wed 18 Mar 2020 08:30:43 AEST ]]> Molecular signatures of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae lung adaptation in paediatric chronic lung disease Wed 18 Mar 2020 08:29:27 AEST ]]> Brain Aging in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group Tue 14 Apr 2020 15:50:44 AEST ]]> Evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby Y chromosome: Implications for sex chromosome evolution Thu 11 May 2017 13:30:07 AEST ]]> Greater male than female variability in regional brain structure across the lifespan Thu 02 Apr 2020 14:38:40 AEST ]]> Duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Achromobacter spp. Thu 02 Apr 2020 13:05:20 AEST ]]> Trichinella spiralis secretes abundant unencapsulated small RNAs with potential effects on host gene expression Fri 03 Apr 2020 12:48:35 AEST ]]> Pathogen to commensal: longitudinal within-host population dynamics, evolution, and adaptation during a chronic >16-year Burkholderia pseudomallei infection 16-year period, and also sampled the patients home environment, recovering six closely related B. pseudomallei isolates from water. Using comparative genomics, we identified 126 SNPs in the core genome of the 124 isolates or 162 SNPs/indels when the accessory genome was included. The core SNPs were used to construct a phylogenetic tree, which demonstrated a close relationship between environmental and clinical isolates and detailed within-host evolutionary patterns. The phylogeny had little homoplasy, consistent with a single clonal population. Repeated sampling revealed evidence of genetic diversification, but frequent extinctions left only one successful lineage through the first four years and two lineages after that, resulting in a highly linear topology. Although these extinctions and persistence could be explained by genetic drift, we observe phenotypic changes consistent with in situ adaptation. Using a mouse model, P314 isolates caused greatly reduced morbidity and mortality compared to the environmental isolates. Additionally, potentially adaptive phenotypes changed with time and included differences in the O-antigen, capsular polysaccharide, motility, and colony morphology. The >13-year co-existence of two long-lived lineages presents interesting hypotheses that can be tested in future studies to provide additional insights into selective pressures, niche differentiation, and microbial adaptation. This unusual melioidosis case presents a rare example of the evolutionary progression to commensalism by a highly virulent pathogen within a single human host.]]> Fri 01 May 2020 14:04:41 AEST ]]> The application of zeta diversity as a continuous measure of compositional change in ecology Fri 01 May 2020 13:57:41 AEST ]]>