${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 In Situ Tropical Peatland Fire Emission Factors and Their Variability, as Determined by Field Measurements in Peninsula Malaysia 25% of estimated total greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation. Despite significant global and regional impacts, our understanding of specific gaseous fire emission factors (EFs) from tropical peat burning is limited to a handful of studies. Furthermore, there is substantial variability in EFs between sampled fires and/or studies. For example, methane EFs vary by 91% between studies. Here we present new fire EFs for the tropical peatland ecosystem; the first EFs measured for Malaysian peatlands, and only the second comprehensive study of EFs in this crucial environment. During August 2015 (under El Niño conditions) and July 2016, we embarked on field campaigns to measure gaseous emissions at multiple peatland fires burning on deforested land in Southeast Pahang (2015) and oil palm plantations in North Selangor (2016), Peninsula Malaysia. Gaseous emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The IR spectra were used to retrieve mole fractions of 12 different gases present within the smoke (including carbon dioxide and methane), and these measurements used to calculate EFs. Peat samples were taken at each burn site for physicochemical analysis and to explore possible relationships between specific physicochemical properties and fire EFs. Here we present the first evidence to indicate that substrate bulk density affects methane fire EFs reported here. This novel explanation of interplume, within-biome variability, should be considered by those undertaking greenhouse gas accounting and haze forecasting in this region and is of importance to peatland management, particularly with respect to artificial compaction. ©2018. American Geophysical Union.]]> Wed 17 Apr 2019 12:05:47 AEST ]]> International collaboration and comparative research on ocean top predators under CLIOTOP Wed 14 Mar 2018 10:45:39 AEST ]]> Ecological bridges and barriers in pelagic ecosystems Wed 06 Sep 2017 10:01:12 AEST ]]> Calibration of a chalcogenide glass membrane ion-selective electrode for the determination of free Fe3+ in seawater I. Measurements in UV photooxidised seawater 10-5 M Fe3+, demonstrating that the response of the FeISE is unaffected by chloride ions. A mechanism involving a combination of charge transfer and ion-exchange of Fe(III), at the electrode diffusion layer, can be used to explain the ≃ 30 mV/decade slope of the FeISE. The response of the FeISE in UV photooxidised seawater containing 8 nM total Fe was measured as the pH was changed from 8.27 to 3.51. The slope of the response was 24.2 mV/decade [Fe3+] calculated as a function of pH using Fe(III) hydrolysis constants for seawater. Moreover, the response was essentially collinear with that in citrate buffers and in unbuffered solutions containing > 10-5 M Fe3+ and the slope for the combined data was 26.2 mV/decade. This study was restricted to organic-free seawater because the certainty in Fe(III)-ligand stability constants is insufficient to warrant the selection of an ideal calibration buffer system, and there is evidence that powerful chelating ligands (e.g., EDTA along with humic and fulvic acids) may alter the response of the Fe(III)ISE. The Fe dissolution rate of the FeISE in UV photooxidised seawater was found to be 1.6 x 10-2 nmol Fe/min, as measured by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV). This would contaminate a 100-ml sample by 0.8-1.6 nM Fe over a typical measurement period of 5-10 min obtained using a stability criterion of 0.5 mV/min. Various methods are proposed for reducing the level of contamination in open ocean samples that contain sub-nanomolar concentrations of iron. The FeISE has the potential to detect free Fe3+ at concentrations typically found in natural seawater. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.]]> Tue 11 Nov 2014 11:47:28 AEST ]]> Reply to 'Comments on 'Calibration of a chalcogenide glass membrane ion-selective electrode for the determination of free Fe3+ in seawater: I. Measurements in UV photooxidised seawater' by De Marco and Mackey (Marine Chemistry 68 (2000) 283-294)' by Const Tue 11 Nov 2014 11:46:03 AEST ]]> Surface studies of the jalpaite-based copper(II) ion-selective electrode membrane in seawater Tue 11 Nov 2014 11:39:03 AEST ]]> The survival of organic matter in bone: A review Tue 07 Aug 2018 14:16:27 AEST ]]> Small-angle X-ray scattering: A high-throughput technique for investigating archaeological bone preservation Tue 07 Aug 2018 14:16:24 AEST ]]> The use of small-angle X-ray scattering to study archaeological and experimentally altered bone Tue 07 Aug 2018 14:09:31 AEST ]]> The use of small-angle X-ray diffraction studies for the analysis of structural features in archaeological samples Tue 07 Aug 2018 14:09:22 AEST ]]> Implications of migrating geoid anomalies for the interpretation of high-level fossil coral reefs Thu 27 Jun 2019 13:13:51 AEST ]]> Interactions between proteins and soil mineral surfaces: Environmental and health consequences Mon 25 May 2015 15:12:35 AEST ]]> Direct measurement of Cu(II)(aq) in seawater at pH 8 with the jalpaite ion-selective electrode Mon 16 Feb 2015 11:05:06 AEST ]]> Coupling between ocean biota and atmospheric aerosols: Dust, dimethylsulphide, or artefact? Fri 27 May 2016 15:46:53 AEST ]]> Saturation levels of methyl bromide in the coastal waters off Tasmania Fri 27 May 2016 15:44:00 AEST ]]> Nanoparticulate nickel sulfides formed in low temperature aqueous solutions 11, α-NiS was obtained from the chemical reaction. At pH 6–9, the product produced only two broad peaks (d = ca. 2.7 and 1.8 Ǻ) with conventional and synchrotron XRPD which could be assigned to a number of Ni sulfides. It has previously been referred to as “amorphous NiS” Jeong and Manthiram, 2001. Eight SAED reflections were collected which identified the material as godlevskite, orthorhombic NiS. HRTEM shows that the godlevskite particles are ca. 30 nm in diameter and plate-like. SAXS analyses show that the material is 6–8.5 nm thick. Godlevskite is structurally related to makinawite, tetragonal FeS, and is found naturally in similar parageneses-associated with the monosulfide solid solution products of high temperature nickel ores. Mackinawite is the black FeS precipitate from the reaction between Fe(II) and S(-II) in aqueous solution. It appears that, geochemically, godlevskite is the Ni analogue of mackinawite.]]> Fri 10 Aug 2018 12:44:54 AEST ]]> Caesium-137 in Southeast Asia: Is there enough left for soil erosion and sediment redistribution studies? Fri 08 Feb 2019 10:24:22 AEST ]]> Trace-element systematics of sediments in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia: Sediment provenance and palaeoclimate implications of fine scale chemical heterogeneity Fri 07 Nov 2014 12:17:06 AEST ]]> Identification of palaeo-drought episodes in eastern Australia: High resolution dust flux records, as an indicator of teleconnections and associated drought in the Australian region Fri 07 Nov 2014 12:06:10 AEST ]]> Detailed history of Holocene climate variability in Australia from dust records in peat cores Fri 07 Nov 2014 11:53:06 AEST ]]> Establishing high precision trace element maps of the main dust source areas of eastern and south-central Australia 40 elements by inductivelycoupled- plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Here we present such a high-precision geochemical dataset (40 trace elements) for the source areas of dust that is transported across the Eastern Australian seaboard. These source areas (river floodplains, palaeo-lakebeds, dunes, playas) have generally similar relative trace element abundances, typical of upper continental crust. However, the new ICP-MS data document geochemical provinces on the sub-catchment scale. The geochemical provinciality is largely inherited from the main erosion source lithologies and translates into provenance resolution of ca. 50 × 50 km. When modern far-travelled (up to 4,000 km) mineral dust of known provenance (from ground observation) is compared to the surface geochemical map, we find excellent agreement with the source area for many elements (McGowan et al., 2005). Mismatching elements are those affected by: (i) density sorting (Zr, Hf, HREE); (ii) reprecipitation (Be, Sr) and (iii) air pollution (first and second order transition metals, Tl and Pb). Comparison of 210Pb activity between known source areas from the geochemical map and far-travelled dust demonstrates clearly that the enrichment in metals like Pb, Zn and Cu happens during atmospheric transport through the coastal East Australian pollutant plumes (Marx et al., 2005). For the purpose of dust provenancing, for which Zr, Hf and HREE are unsuitable, it is sufficient to digest surface sediments in closed beakers at 130°C. However, we also demonstrate that only high-P digestion at 200°C yields complete sets of accurate data for all elements. This factor will severely increase the effort and cost of any rigorous surface geochemical mapping project.]]> Fri 07 Nov 2014 11:38:12 AEST ]]> Tertiary water striders (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha, Gerridae) from the central Tibetan Plateau and their palaeobiogeographic implications Fri 05 Apr 2019 11:55:45 AEST ]]> Calciume-iron-phosphate features in archaeological sediments: Characterization through microfocus synchrotron X-ray scattering analyses Fri 03 Aug 2018 15:39:21 AEST ]]>