Australia has a mix of metropolitan, outer-metropolitan, rural and remote regions. In the recent past, economic growth has been biased towards knowledge-intensive industries and occupations, which take place mainly in metropolitan areas. While some non-metropolitan parts of Australia are doing very well, many rural and remote regions are in decline or are stagnating. We know that human resources will be one of the most important factors in encouraging regional development. We also know that vocational education and training (VET) institutions have a significant presence in the regions and are usually integrated with the local economy. In order to find out more about the role VET can play in regional development, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) commissioned a suite of research. This study, The double helix of vocational education and training and regional development, is part of that suite. It looked at five regions across Australia to assess how well VET is meeting the skills needs of those regions, such that these communities achieve sustainable development.