Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major horticultural insect pest in Australia which significantly limits domestic and international market access for Australian horticultural produce. Citrus is one of the industries seriously affected by the fruit fly problem in Australia. This research investigated the effect of citrus peel essential oil chemicals on B. tryoni larval survival in five different commercially important Citrus species and cultivars as a way of better understanding fruit susceptibility. The fruits used were Murcott mandarin, Navel orange, Eureka lemon, Valencia orange and yellow grapefruit. The essential oils of each citrus type were extracted using hydrodistillation and then mixed, at different concentrations, with artificial larval diets to which B. tryoni eggs were added. Surviving larvae were counted after five trial days. The same process was repeated for six essential oil components. Regression analysis of increasing oil concentration against larval survival showed that the crude oil blends of Navel orange, Eureka lemon and yellow grapefruit had significant negative effects on B. tryoni larval survival, but no such effects were seen for Murcott mandarin and Valencia orange. Of the individual essential oil fractions, only d-limonene had a significant effect on B. tryoni larval survival, with this chemical being highly toxic at very low concentrations. The results of this study open up opportunities for incorporating B. tryoni resistance mechanisms into citrus through minor peel property changes which would not impact on the eating attributes of the fruit.