The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association of serum 25(OH)D and PTH, respectively, with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) while controlling for adiposity in black women. Using a cross-sectional study design, 209 urban black women aged ≥ 43 years from the North West Province, South Africa, were included. Multiple regression models were used to explore the relationship between 25(OH)D, PTH and body composition. To explore the association between 25(OH)D, PTH and MetS, a separate variable was created including at least three of the MetS criteria, but excluding elevated waist circumference as a diagnostic criterion in a logistic regression model. The majority of the women (69.9%) were overweight or obese and 65.5% of the women had excessive adiposity using the age specific cut-off points for body fat percentage. All body composition variables were positively associated with PTH, while BMI and waist circumference, but not body fat % had negative associations with 25(OH)D, also after adjusting for confounders. Before and after adjusting for age, body fat, habitual physical activity, tobacco use, season of data collection and estimated glomerular filtration rate, neither 25(OH)D nor PTH showed significant associations with the MetS. Although PTH was positively and 25(OH)D was negatively associated with adiposity in black women, there was no association between either 25(OH)D or PTH and the MetS in this study population, nor did adiposity influence these relationships.