In this paper, an integrated inter-vehicles wireless communications and positioning system supporting alternate positioning techniques is proposed to meet the requirements of safety applications of Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS). Recent advances have repeatedly demonstrated that road safety problems can be to a large extent addressed via a range of technologies including wireless communications and positioning in vehicular environments. The novel communication stack utilizing a dedicated frequency spectrum (e.g. at 5.9 GHz band), known as Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC), has been particularly designed for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) to support safety applications in highly dynamic environments. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is another essential enabler to support safety on rail and roads. Although current vehicle navigation systems such as single frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers can provide route guidance with 5-10 meters (road-level) position accuracy, positioning systems utilized in C-ITS must provide position solutions with lane-level and even inlane-level accuracies based on the requirements of safety applications. This article reviews the issues and technical approaches that are involved in designing a vehicular safety communications and positioning architecture; it also provides technological solutions to further improve vehicular safety by integrating the DSRC and GNSSbased positioning technologies.
Journal of Global Positioning Systems (JoGPS) / Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.38-52