Survival of the free-living mycetophagous form of Deladenus siricidicola, the major biological control agent of Sirex woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, was tested in known (Pinus taeda) and predicted novel (P. elliottii subsp. elliottii x P. caribaea var. hondurensis) hybrid host taxa. Trials were established in the field to simulate nematode dispersal both naturally by infected wasps and following commercial inoculation, as well as in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Nematodes showed reduced survival in hybrid pine compared with P. taeda for all tree-associated treatments, but performed equivalently in petri-dish bioassays containing substrate of each taxon. Growth of Amylostereum areolatum, the food source of D. siricidicola was lower on plates containing ground hybrid substrate than on plates containing ground P. taeda. Some physical differences were found between taxa, including differences in bordered pit diameters, tracheid widths, and basic density, but these did not consistently explain reduced performance. More plant secondary compounds (predominantly oleoresins) were present in hybrid taxa than in P. taeda, and in standing trees compared with felled trees. Our results suggested that D. siricidicola may not be as effective in hybrid pine taxa for the biological control of S. noctilio as it is in its current known host taxa, possibly because of reduced growth of its food source, A. areolatum in hybrid pine.