Purpose: This study investigates the feasibility of integrating the social, environmental, and innovation processes within the four SBSC perspective model by determining the extent of linkages between and within the four SBSC perspectives. Design/methodology/approach: A survey collected responses from senior management and middle management of large Australian companies. Findings: The findings support several positive significant associations. Direct associations are found between value-creating processes within the Internal Process perspective. These results support the feasibility of integrating environmental, social, and innovation-orientated valuecreating process into the Internal Process of the four SBSC perspective model. The results also provide evidence about the extent direct or indirect associations exist between the four SBSC perspectives: first, human capital (Learning and Growth perspective) direct association with value-creating processes (Internal Processes perspective); second, the value-creating (Internal Processes perspective) direct association with customer value (Customer Perspective); and third, value-creating (Internal Processes perspective) direct and indirect associations with financial performance (Financial perspective). Research limitations: Several limitations are acknowledged related to cross-sectional data, senior and middle managers’ perceptions, and assumptions underpinning structural equation modelling (SEM). Social implications: These associations reflect the influence of stakeholders’ recognised needs on process and product innovation. These needs highlight the benefits of focusing on future orientatedenvironmental budgets and ongoing employee training that lead to customer value and financial performance. Practical implications: The implications for practice from this study concern how organisational management should relate to their stakeholders while providing value in their financial performance. Originality/value: This is an initial in-depth study of a four SBSC perspective model that provides an effective means of integrating social, environmental and innovation processes within the traditional four BSC perspectives.
Accounting Research Journal / Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.154-178