Anterior Cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries: Are siblings at risk? Background: Over 10,000 ACL reconstructions are performed annually in Australia. The need to focus on preventing injury and Identifying at-risk groups, is growing. It is scarcely documented that siblings may be at risk, even though ACL injuries in siblings are seen in physiotherapy and medical clinics. Aims: To 1. assess the incidence of ACL injuries in siblings 2. compare the frequency of four risk factors in siblings with and without ACL injuries: Narrow femoral intercondylar notches; generalized joint laxity (GJL); faulty lower limb posture; excessive sports at an early age 3. compare the difference in these factors in sibling pairs with and without ACL injuries. Methods: ACL- injured individuals from a study cohort of 72 and their ACL- injured siblings were recruited. These 24 siblings were matched for age, activity and family composition with uninjured control siblings. Le Prade-view radiographs assessed notch width size, Beighton’s criteria assessed GJL, knee valgus and subtalar pronation were measured and sporting history was recorded. Chi-square analysis assessed differences between sibling groups. Results: Thirteen of 72 (almost one in five) individuals had a sibling with a rupture ACL. GJL occurred in 58% of injured and 17% of uninjured siblings. The incidence of knee hyperextension, knee valgus and pronation was 80%, 42% and 54% respectively for injured and 25%, 17% and 8% for uninjured siblings. Sixty-six percent of injured sibling had narrow notches while 4% of uninjured siblings did so. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant difference between injured and uninjured sibling pairs for GJL ( p=0.019), knee hyperextension (p<.001), knee valgus (p-.06) pronation (p=.06) and narrow intercondylar notches (p=.003) There was no significant difference found between groups for early involvement in excessive sport. GJL, knee hyperextension, knee valgus , foot pronation and narrow femoral notches, especially if occurring together, put siblings at risk of ACL injury.
2015 University Research Conference: Integrate, Innovate, Inspire, Sunshine Coast, Australia 13-16 July 2015