Bee products have been used since ancient civilisations in foods, cosmetics and medicinal preparations for their biological and pharmacological properties, including antibacterial activities. Among these products, honey and bee propolis have been employed in pharmaceutical preparations. Propolis is a mixture of plant resins added with beeswax, whereas honey is derived from mixing plant nectars with bee salivary enzymes. Limited studies are available on the products of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini). The aims of this PhD project were to characterise the chemical compositions of T. carbonaria honey and propolis and to link them to their antibacterial effects. Moreover, the propolis of honeybees (Apis mellifera, Apidae) produced in the same subtropical areas of eastern Australia was included as a comparison to the analyses of stingless bee propolis, and reported here for the first time.
Submitted in the fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of the Sunshine Coast, 2014.