In crustaceans serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters that play roles in the modulation of numerous physiological functions, including reproduction. However, in the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, the distributions of 5-HT and DA in the CNS have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to map the distributions of these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of the female of this crab during the late stage of ovarian development. We found 5-HT immunoreactivity (-ir) and DA-ir in many parts of the CNS, including the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia. In the eyestalk, 5-HT-ir was localized in the medulla terminalis (MT), hemi-ellipsoid body (HB), and protocerebral tract (PT), whereas DA-ir was present in neuronal cluster 1, the LG neuropils, and PT. In the brain, 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were detected in cells and fibers of neuronal clusters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15. In the ventral nerve cord, 5-HT-ir was present in neurons of the abdominal ganglia, whereas DA was only present in fibers. These spatial distributions of 5-HT and DA suggest that they may be involved in the neuromodulation of important physiological functions, including ovarian maturation, as shown in other non-crab decapods.